As we mark World AIDS Day 2019 it is important that we remember the lives lost, look back on the progress that has been made in recent years, and take stock on the challenges that we still face. In the fight against HIV, we are at a crucial stage. While the massive success of widespread anti-retroviral treatment has saved millions of lives, the total number of new HIV infections is still unacceptably high: 1.7 million people became infected with HIV in 2018.  Countless people are still struggling to access the resources and treatment needed to prevent new infections. While in many parts of the world effective treatment is leading to viral suppression and “U=U“. However, young women and girls and other key populations are still experiencing high-rates of HIV prevalence and new infections. These people are at risk of being left behind and it is vital that we continue to fight the persisting gender and human rights-related barriers that maintain this.