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The National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol (NACDA) 2016 data suggests an increase of the use of cannabis and ‘ecstasy’ by young people from  2010/2011 to 2014/2015.  A 2015 National Student Drug Survey found that 83% of respondents had taken at least one ‘controlled’ drug. On average, about one person dies every day from a drug-related death in Ireland.  Many of these involve alcohol, opioids and prescription drugs. Dozens of people die from cocaine and ‘ecstasy’ every year.  A number of highly publicised deaths of   young people  have been associated with New Psychoactive Substances (NPSs). Such NPSs include PMA/PMMA, 25i-BOMe and U-47700 which are often sold as other drugs (e.g. MDMA, 2C-B and cocaine).

Current reforms in Ireland

“Drug testing kits, drug testing at events, centralised drug testing” are being considered by the Department of Health. However,  it remains unclear whether such projects will be piloted as part of the next National Drug Strategy.  A published Misuse of Drugs (Supervised Injection Facilities) Act 2017 will facilitate the piloting of medically-supervised injection facility in Dublin city. The Medical Cannabis Regulations bill will allow for the availability of cannabis-based medicines if passed.  Conversely, a recent report advocates for the establishment of a Compassionate Access Scheme for MS-associated spasticity; nausea and vomitting during chemotherapy; and childhood epilepsy. Furthermore, the Oireachtas Joint Committee on Justice, Defence and Equality has recommended   “….. a harm reducing and rehabilitative approach to possession of small amounts of illegal drugs”. If the recommendations are adopted they would contribute significantly towards a shift from a criminal justice-based to a health-based approach to drugs.

Youth RISE, Help Not Harm, SSDP Ireland, NORML Ireland and Psychedelic Society of Ireland activists at Ireland’s 2017 Support Don’t Punish event

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A majority of youths get some of their information concerning drugs online.  Many have a general mistrust of the drug education they received in schools which is often piecemeal, based on scare tactics, delivered by nonprofessionals,  and consisting of inaccuracies and half truths.

Many turn to online resources such as Erowid, Bluelight, Drug Wise, Psychonaut Wiki,  Drugs Forum, r/Drugs, Universo de la Drogas (Spanish), DrugStoryPillreports, drugsand.me , touchbase  etc. to learn about drugs; interactions; harm reduction techniques; and to engage in peer communication.  

Concurrently, online drug markets  have developed in recent years both on the surface web and the deep web.  An European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)overview of research on the phenomenon can be found here:’The Internet and Drug Markets’.  A 2015 Irish survey of university students found that 4.5 % of respondents reported that they procured their drugs through online sources.

The Silk Road was probably the most well known of these online markets, having gained notoriety during the high profile trial of suspected founder Ross Ulbricht. As one of the world’s first and largest online marketplaces, it is partially responsible for popularising the concept of cryptocurrencies (e.g. Bitcoin– which is hitting record highs) and the TOR browser. Today, many different cryptocurrencies can be used including Ethereum, DASH and Monero and many market places have replaced Silk Road e.g. AlphaBay and DreamMarket

As Buxton and Bingham, 2015 note in their policy brief:

  • For vendors and purchasers who use the sophisticated, user friendly and increasingly secure Dark Net sites, hidden markets present a safer environment for drug transactions and they reduce the multiple risks (coercion, violence, arrest, exposure to other drugs) associated with ‘street’ sales
  • Research demonstrates that anonymised user forums and online chat rooms encourage and facilitate information sharing about drug purchases and drug effects, representing a novel form of harm reduction for drug users and an entry point for drug support services.

Dr. Fernando Caudevilla (a.k.a. ‘Dr.X’) is a pioneer in the field of deep web harm reduction. He operated several forums where he answered a wide range of drug-related questions.   A catalogue of some of his exchanges can be found here.  He also works with Energy Control which provides an international drug checking service which can be accessed here and paid for in Bitcoin. 

Fernando considers deep web marketplaces “one of the most important things that has happened in relation to drugs in the 21st century” and believes that they present an important opportunity to engage in harm reduction interventions (e.g. Deep Web Marketplaces: An Opportunity for Harm Reduction) with both users and vendors.

He blames prohibition for leading to a situation whereby people feel more comfortable talking anonymously to a stranger online rather than their doctor in the real world.  The deep web can provide a space where people can exchange honest and credible information with far less fear of stigma, discrimination or legal reprimand.  This can facilitate the development of  more honest conversations surrounding drugs between harm reduction professionals and consumers; consumers and vendors; and vendors and researchers (e.g. Van Hout and Bingham, 2014)

Information spreads quickly.  An online community can rate and comment on vendors.  If a product is low quality, consumers are likely to complain and the vendor is likely to lose business.   Fernando cites the example of Energy Control discovering some PMMA in a batch of ‘Superman pills’ using drug checking techniques. PMMA has been linked to numerous deaths around the world. When EnergyControl released this information many vendors stopped selling pills similar to these.  As he notes “it is a semi-regulated market”.

Slowly, authorities are  recognising Information Communication Technologies (ICT) as valuable resources in reducing drug-related harm. A recent European Commission Drug Action Plan proposes:

“.. enhanced use of information and communications technologies (ICT) for prevention purposes, such as awareness raising activities, targeting young people in particular. It also encourages measures to better address the needs of older drug users and vulnerable communities as well as focusing on the reduction of health and social harms caused by drug use”.

It will be interesting  to what extent such interventions will develop in the deep web!

Minister of State for Justice with special responsibility for Equality, Immigration and Integration Minister David Stanton and Tánaiste (Irish Deputy Prime Minister) and Minister of Justice and Equality Frances Fitzgerald at the launch of Ireland’s National Women and Girls Strategy 2017-2020: creating a better society for all

Source: Department of Justice and Equality Event Pictures

 

Ireland’s Department of Justice and Equality recently launched its  National Women and Girls National Strategy.

Youth RISE attended as a result of a joint submission on ‘Women and Drugs’ with Students for Sensible Drug Policy Australia, America, Ireland and United Kingdom; Help Not Harm; and with input from Judy Chang (International Network of People Who Use Drugs), Gerard Roe (BeLong To Youth Service) and Youth RISE IWG Catherine Nyambura (ATHENA Network).

 

What we recommended:

“The use of drugs is associated with stigma and discrimination. Language can help shape culture and we agree with INPUD that ‘abuse’, ‘addict’, ‘junkie’ and other pejorative, stigmatising and dehumanising language should be avoided and replaced with humanising terms such as people who use drugs (PWUDs), people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and/or people who are dependent on drugs. Women who use drugs  are often subject to additional marginalisation and discrimination which compounds their fundamental inequality.   This is particularly evident in the context of criminalisation, injecting drug use, HIV status, pregnancy, parenthood, homelessness and engagement in sex work.   Additionally, services for these groups often lack gender-specific focus e.g. drug services, homelessness services, HIV responses etc.”

 

Their commitment:

 

  • The new Drug Strategy will aim to increase the range of wrap around services to meet the needs of women who are using drugs and/or alcohol in a harmful manner, including those with children and those who are pregnant.  

 

 

What we recommended:

“Pregnancy and uncompensated domestic work (including childcare) place unequal demands on women’s time which can limit their participation in the labour force. This contributes to the gender pay gap – a measure of financial inequality.  Paternity leave along the lines of the Swedish model and abortion-on-demand would make great strides in addressing this fundamental inequality.”

 

Their commitment:

 

  • Implement a range  of measures to address child care issues, the participation of women in the labour force and to reduce the gender pay gap;
  • To monitor the outcome of the governmental committee on changes to abortion legislation (8th Amendment) following the outcome of the Citizens Assembly.

 

 

What we recommended:

“Much of the attention to date toward women and girls has focused on them as recipients of services and/or targets of interventions.  Adolescent girls and young women should be empowered  as peer advocates within their communities.”

 

Their commitment:

 

  • Girls and young women  are supported in their social and emotional development through the provision of community based youth services;

 

 

What we recommended:

“Sexual education, as experienced by some of our members, was often piecemeal and couched in gender normative interpretations of sexuality.  Many of our members have reported homophobic perspectives and other general inadequacies in the sexual education they received. This is particularly worrying in context of young sexually active women, MSM and transgender people (particularly transgender women) being key affected populations disproportionately impacted by HIV (WHO,2016).”

 

Their commitment:

 

  • Hold a referendum on Article 41.2.1 of Bunreacht na hÉireann regarding a “woman’s life within the home”;
  • Develop an initiative  to explore how to consult children and young people on addressing gender stereotyped norms;
  • Establish a programme of activity, including research, awareness-raising and cultural activities, to promote positive gender norms and to challenge negative gender norms;
  • Consider in the forthcoming National LGBT Inclusion Strategy how best to improve health outcomes for LGBTI persons;
  • Issue Ireland’s first national Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender (LGBT+) Strategy for Young People.

 

 

What we recommended:

“Issues around  consent and respect are often  inadequately addressed.  Whilst we applaud movements regarding consent at third-level we consider this far too late. With respect to both of these issues, more work must be undertaken to foster greater respect and develop healthier attitudes towards consent. Such efforts should include the recruitment of male peer advocates- which we recognise as a key resource in combatting GBV. The increased risk of women who use drugs to be subject to GBV must be addressed.”

 

Their commitment:

 

  • Enhanced legislative protections and supports put in place for victims of gender-based violence;
  • Requests from non-governmental organizations in relation to targets, outcomes and indicators in the Second National Strategy on Domestic, Sexual and Gender-based Violence 2016-2021 to be examined.

 

 

We recommended:

“Ireland must ratify the Istanbul Convention of which it is a signatory.”

 

Their commitment:

  • Implement the actions contained in the Second National Strategy on Domestic, Sexual and Gender-based Violence 2016-2020 required to enable Ireland to ratify the Istanbul convention.

 

We recommended:

“..we believe that we must follow the  UN Bangkok Rules on Women Offenders and Prisoners and IRPT (2013) guidelines for low level offences in context of general human rights and  gender-specific issues such as pregnancy and caregiving which are negatively impacted through imprisonment.  Imprisonment for low-level drug offences is not good practice, and it is not proportionate sentencing.”

 

Their  commitment:

 

  • “..conducting further research into the particular needs and circumstances of female offenders and the reasons behind the growth in the use of imprisonment for women, placing greater focus on step down facilities for female offenders, the use of gender appropriate community sanctions, promoting greater contact between offenders and their children) and also the greater use of supported and temporary release, access to rehabilitation and reintegration programmes and development of alternative sanctions to imprisonment.”
  • A step down facility from prison for female offenders to be opened.